Examples

Fixing Bugs By Replacing Shell

Have you ever encountered shell like this? It arranges to conditionally execute an if statement as root on a file server behind a bastion host:

ssh bastion "
    if [ \"$PROD\" ];
    then
        ssh fileserver sudo su -c \"
            if grep -qs /dev/sdb1 /proc/mounts;
            then
                echo \\\"sdb1 already mounted!\\\";
                umount /dev/sdb1
            fi;
            rm -rf \\\"/media/Main Backup Volume\\\"/*;
            mount /dev/sdb1 \\\"/media/Main Backup Volume\\\"
        \";
    fi;
    sudo touch /var/run/start_backup;
"

Chances are high this is familiar territory, we’ve all seen it, and those working in infrastructure have almost certainly written it. At first glance, ignoring that annoying quoting, it looks perfectly fine: well structured, neatly indented, and the purpose of the snippet seems clear.

  1. At first glance, is "/media/Main Backup Volume" quoted correctly?
  2. How will the if statement behave if there is a problem with the machine, and, say, the /bin/grep binary is absent?
  3. Ignoring quoting, are there any other syntax problems?
  4. If this snippet is pasted from its original script into an interactive shell, will it behave the same as before?
  5. Can you think offhand of differences in how the arguments to sudo ... and ssh fileserver ... are parsed?
  6. In which context will the * glob be expanded, if it is expanded at all?
  7. What will the exit status of ssh bastion be if ssh fileserver fails?

Innocent But Deadly

  1. The quoting used is nonsense! At best, mount will receive 3 arguments. At worst, the snippet will not parse at all.
  2. The if statement will treat a missing grep binary (exit status 127) the same as if /dev/sdb1 was not mounted at all (exit status 1). Unless the program executing this script is parsing stderr output, the failure won’t be noticed. Consequently, since the volume was still mounted when rm was executed, it got wiped.
  3. There is at least one more syntax error present: a semicolon missing after the umount command.
  4. If you paste the snippet into an interactive shell, the apparently quoted “!” character in the echo command will be interpreted as a history expansion.
  5. sudo preserves the remainder of the argument vector as-is, while ssh concatenates each part into a single string that is passed to the login shell. While quotes appearing within arguments are preserved by sudo, without additional effort, pairs of quotes are effectively stripped by ssh.
  6. As for where the glob is expanded, the answer is I have absolutely no idea without running the code, which might wipe out the backups!
  7. If the ssh fileserver command fails, the exit status of ssh bastion will continue to indicate success.
  8. Depending in which environment the PROD variable is set, either it will always evaluate to false, because it was set by the bastion host, or it will do the right thing, because it was set by the script host.

Golly, we’ve managed to hit at least 8 potentially mission-critical gotchas in only 14 lines of code, and they are just those I can count! Welcome to the reality of “programming” in shell.

In the end, superficial legibility counted for nothing, it’s 4AM, you’ve been paged, the network is down and your boss is angry.

Shell Quoting Madness

Let’s assume on first approach that we really want to handle those quoting issues. I wrote a little Python script based around the shlex.quote() function to construct, to the best of my knowledge, the quoting required for each stage:

ssh bastion '
    if [ "$PROD" ];
    then
        ssh fileserver sudo su -c '"'"'
            if grep -qs /dev/sdb1 /proc/mounts;
            then
                echo "sdb1 already mounted!";
                umount /dev/sdb1
            fi;
            rm -rf "/media/Main Backup Volume"/*;
            mount /dev/sdb1 "/media/Main Backup Volume"
        '"'"';
    fi;
    sudo touch /var/run/start_backup
'

Even with Python handling the heavy lifting of quoting each shell layer, and even if the aforementioned minor disk-wiping issue was fixed, it is still not 100% clear that argument handling rules for all of su, sudo, ssh, and bash are correctly respected.

Finally, if any login shell involved is not bash, we must introduce additional quoting in order to explicitly invoke bash at each stage, causing an explosion in quoting:

ssh bastion 'bash -c '"'"'if [ "$PROD" ]; then ssh fileserver bash -c '"'"'
"'"'"'"'"'"'sudo su -c '"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"
'bash -c '"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"
'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'
"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'if grep -qs /dev/sdb1 /proc/mounts; then echo "sdb1 alr
eady mounted!"; umount /dev/sdb1 fi; rm -rf "/media/Main Backup Volume"/*;
mount /dev/sdb1 "/media/Main Backup Volume"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"
'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'
"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"''"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'
"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"''"'"'"'"'"'"'"'"'; fi; sudo touch /var/run/
start_backup'"'"''

There Is Hope

We could instead express the above using Mitogen:

def run(*args):
    return subprocess.check_call(args)

def file_contains(s, path):
    with open(path, 'rb') as fp:
        return s in fp.read()

device = '/dev/sdb1'
mount_point = '/media/Media Volume'

bastion = router.ssh(hostname='bastion')
bastion_sudo = router.sudo(via=bastion)

if PROD:
    fileserver = router.ssh(hostname='fileserver', via=bastion)
    if fileserver.call(file_contains, device, '/proc/mounts'):
        print('{} already mounted!'.format(device))
        fileserver.call(run, 'umount', device)
    fileserver.call(shutil.rmtree, mount_point)
    fileserver.call(os.mkdir, mount_point, 0777)
    fileserver.call(run, 'mount', device, mount_point)

bastion_sudo.call(run, 'touch', '/var/run/start_backup')
  • In which context must the PROD variable be defined?
  • On which machine is each step executed?
  • Are there any escaping issues?
  • What will happen if the grep binary is missing?
  • What will happen if any step fails?
  • What will happen if any login shell is not bash?

Recursively Nested Bootstrap

This demonstrates the library’s ability to use slave contexts to recursively proxy connections to additional slave contexts, with a uniform API to any slave, and all features (function calls, import forwarding, stdio forwarding, log forwarding) functioning transparently.

This example uses a chain of local contexts for clarity, however SSH and sudo contexts work identically.

nested.py:

import os
import mitogen.utils

@mitogen.utils.run_with_router
def main(router):
    mitogen.utils.log_to_file()

    context = None
    for x in range(1, 11):
        print('Connect local%d via %s' % (x, context))
        context = router.local(via=context, name='local%d' % x)

    context.call(os.system, 'pstree -s python -s mitogen')

Output:

$ python nested.py
Connect local1 via None
Connect local2 via Context(1, 'local1')
Connect local3 via Context(2, 'local2')
Connect local4 via Context(3, 'local3')
Connect local5 via Context(4, 'local4')
Connect local6 via Context(5, 'local5')
Connect local7 via Context(6, 'local6')
Connect local8 via Context(7, 'local7')
Connect local9 via Context(8, 'local8')
Connect local10 via Context(9, 'local9')
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout: -+= 00001 root /sbin/launchd
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:  \-+= 08126 dmw /Applications/iTerm.app/Contents/MacOS/iTerm2
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:    \-+= 10638 dmw /Applications/iTerm.app/Contents/MacOS/iTerm2 --server bash --login
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:      \-+= 10639 dmw bash --login
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:        \-+= 13632 dmw python nested.py
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:          \-+- 13633 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13632
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:            \-+- 13635 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13633
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:              \-+- 13637 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13635
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                \-+- 13639 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13637
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                  \-+- 13641 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13639
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                    \-+- 13643 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13641
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                      \-+- 13645 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13643
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                        \-+- 13647 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13645
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                          \-+- 13649 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13647
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                            \-+- 13651 dmw mitogen:dmw@Eldil.local:13649
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                              \-+- 13653 dmw pstree -s python -s mitogen
18:14:07 I ctx.local10: stdout:                                \--- 13654 root ps -axwwo user,pid,ppid,pgid,command